What is Dark Matter Found? Second Experiment Weighs
In June 2020, an experiment based in Italy offered evidence that they could directly observe dark matter. Now a second experiment conducted in China has announced data that are consistent with the first one. Is Dark Matter Discovered? This would be a hasty conclusion, but the situation is quite interesting.
The XENON1T experiment uses more than three tons of liquid xenon for the discovery of dark matter. The researchers expect the dark matter in the solar system to pass through the detector and a small portion of it will interact with the axon and leave a signal in their detector. The prototype of the XENON1T began operations in 2006 with a series of upgrades, pushing the XENON1T forward. It started operations in 2016.
In June 2020, researchers announced that they observed more signs than expected (285 observed vs. 232 expected). The expected number of signals from known sources can be calculated. An excess of 53 events may indicate dark matter interactions.
Scientists did not claim that they observed Dark Matter, although a form called Axis was a possible explanation for the Dark Matter addition, although some scientists reject that hypothesis. On the other hand, contamination by radioactive tritium is another possible explanation. A few other foreign origins of a number of unexpected events were also offered as possibilities.
“Listen hooves, horses are expected, not zebras” are taught to some medical students as they learn to diagnose patients. Eroticism reminds them that mangoes are more likely than foreigners. This proverb also works in the pursuit of physics. It is only more likely that an unexpected observation would be a common origin, rather than a landslide discovery.
On the other hand, the XENON1T experiment did not have sufficient ability to determine which of the various proposed causes was real. Caution requires that all possibilities be investigated. A follow-up experiment called XENONnT will be able to solve the mystery, but the XENON experiment is not the only dark matter game in town.
Panda-II is the name of another collaboration of researchers looking for dark matter. It also uses liquid xenon to search for dark matter. The detector is located in Sichuan, China, a laboratory a full mile and a half underground (2.4 km). It is the deepest underground laboratory in the world.
The Panda-II is smaller than the XENON1T, but it collected data over a longer period of time, resulting in about half as much data as the XENON1T. Cooperation on the detector’s response to tritium is also better, since the detector was injected with methane, replacing one of the hydrogen atoms with tritium.
The Panda-II collaboration recently announced its results. Like the XENON1T, they too detected more incidents than expected. The results of the two experiments were consistent with each other. On the other hand, the results of the PandaX-II experiment also corresponded to a vertical statistical fluctuation of known background. In summary, the PandaX-II experiment provided welcome support for earlier observations, but there was not a definitive confirmation.
The next generation of detectors will be needed to solve the question. The Panda collaboration is building the PANDX-4T, a detector containing six tons of liquid xenon, of which four tons are in central quantities and can be used for dark matter search. The XENON collaboration is building XENONnT, which will use 8.3 tons of liquid xenon. In addition, a third collaboration, called the LUX-ZEPLIN detector, will use ten tons of liquid xenon. LUX-ZEPLIN is located in an underground facility at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota.
Once the various upgraded detectors are switched on and their respective backgrounds are understood, each of them will certainly be able to demonstrate whether the XENON1T experiment has observed dark matter. All these experiments are far from over, and it will not happen until the question is answered, although progress has been slow.
Understanding the cosmic mysteries that Dark Matter is proposed to solve is a pressing goal for the physics community. Some galaxies rotate very quickly and have clusters of galaxies together. Recent measurements of the Panda-II experiment give researchers hope that they are on the right track.